Long-term business development risks
Development of new pharmaceuticals involves considerable risks because of the long time spans required by the development work and the inherent uncertainties related to the final outcome, i.e. whether the product can ever be launched in the markets. This strategic risk is managed by the following means:
- The Group includes business units that focus on areas of health care other than the development of its own proprietary products. These units that balance the Group’s operations include generic drugs and veterinary medicines.
- The pharmaceutical product range is to be kept sufficiently broad.
- Product development and marketing risks are shared by working in close co-operation with partners
Proprietary drugs account for a significant proportion of the Group’s net sales and earnings. Orion engages in intensive research with the aim of introducing its own new proprietary drugs in markets worldwide. However, the Group cannot guarantee that new products can be introduced in the markets in accordance with expectations. Furthermore, changes can occur in the co-operation with partners, for example due to corporate actions.
The scope of strategic risks also includes the thoroughness of the Company’s corporate governance and reporting principles. In line with the Corporate Governance Code, the Orion Group's explicit corporate governance code inspires public trust in the Orion Group and its management. The trust is based on transparently published fundamental characteristics and principles of the system, as well as clear definitions of the responsibilities, rights, obligations and reporting relationships of the persons involved.
In addition, the Company enhances the confidence of its stakeholders, such as people affected by its operations, capital markets and its shareholders, by providing open, truthful and consistent information about events, the Company’s operations and financial status in a timely manner.
Research and development risks
The development of proprietary drugs involves many uncertainties. Typically, only about one in ten research projects that reach the clinical phase is launched in the markets. The main reasons for discontinuing a development project relate to the efficacy and safety of the drug candidate, but also to its health economic added value in comparison with comparable treatments. This is why the pharmacological properties of drugs under development, such as their efficacy and safety, and their health economic benefits, are delineated through phased research. Clinical trials with humans can only be conducted with the approval of regulatory drug authorities.
The pharmacology and safety of a drug candidate are extensively studied using preclinical laboratory models and by monitoring tolerability and adverse effects throughout the clinical trials.
In major research projects, Orion's Board of Directors takes the decision on whether to progress from one research phase to the next. In minor research projects, the decision is taken by the executive management. The decisions are always based on a comprehensive analysis of the accumulated research results and the current market situation. For the marketing authorisation application and the summary of product characteristics (SPC), all phases and results of the research are carefully documented for regulatory approval. In accordance with statutory requirements, the adverse effects of a drug continue to be monitored even after it has been launched.
The financial risks increase as research projects progress to clinical trials in humans. The most expensive phase is the last, Phase III clinical trials, which are multinational and involve hundreds or thousands of patients. Double-blind studies are used to ensure as reliable as possible evidence of the efficacy and safety of the drug. This is why Orion generally shares the high financial risks of Phase III trials by conducting them jointly with another pharmaceutical company that will also be a marketing partner for the drug. Collaboration with external parties also in earlier research phases is, however, an essential part of managing risks. The Company aims to find ways of keeping the number of research projects high enough by sharing their costs, risks and possible earnings with partners.
Risks relating to competing generic drugs
A characteristic feature of the pharmaceutical industry is that manufacturers of generic drugs seek to launch into a market at the earliest possible stage their own versions of drugs, which are generally cheaper than the originator company’s products. This can be done by, for example, trying to use the courts to invalidate the originator company’s patents or other intellectual property rights well before they are due to expire. These actions can result in high litigation and other expenses for an originator company, and may lead to significant losses of sales.
In developing its products, Orion endeavours to protect them as well and extensively as possible, whilst defending its product rights effectively by itself and together with its marketing partners.
Downward pressure on pharmaceutical prices
In addition to normal price competition, there are many other factors putting downward pressure on the prices of pharmaceuticals, mainly due to decisions by authorities as governments seek to curb the rise in national drug costs. They include generic substitution and reimbursement systems based on reference prices, changes in regulations concerning them, and cuts in drug prices and reimbursement. Parallel imports in the EU area are also depressing prices.
Orion is responding to these challenges by maintaining a sufficiently diverse product range, continuously enhancing cost-effectiveness and allocating its development and sales resources appropriately.