Sales and business risks
Market-specific operational models are necessarily applied to sales of pharmaceuticals. The traditional way of maintaining an extensive network of sales representatives requires substantial fixed costs. Orion’s business operations in Europe are based on its own sales network, and sales elsewhere in the world through partners. This structure is intended to optimise available resources and risk-bearing capacity, in view of the input required for worldwide marketing of own new proprietary products. In some markets, certain product categories are only sold to insurance companies or hospital procurement organisations, based on bidding.
Where Orion has its own sales organisation, sales must be kept sufficiently high to maintain profitability. This generally requires a broad enough product range.
Risks associated with pharmaceutical production
Pharmaceutical manufacturing is subject to regular inspections by the authorities. Pharmaceutical products must be safe and efficacious, and they must meet all quality standards. To comply with statutory requirements, in pharmaceutical production close attention must be paid to various safety and quality risks.
Adequate quality of pharmaceuticals is ensured through systematic overall management of operations covering all factors with direct or indirect impact on the quality of the drugs. The operations are directed with comprehensive instructions and adequate control of materials and products before and after production.
Orion's broad product range may cause risks to the delivery reliability and make it challenging to maintain the very high quality standard required in production. Authorities and key customers in different countries undertake regular and detailed inspections of development and manufacturing of drugs at Orion’s production sites. Any remedial actions that may be required may at least temporarily have effects that reduce delivery reliability and increase costs. Orion’s product range also includes products manufactured by other pharmaceutical companies. Possible problems related to the delivery reliability or quality of the products of those manufacturers may cause a risk to Orion’s delivery reliability.
Legal, intellectual property rights and regulatory risks
The pharmaceutical sector is subject to some special regulations and close regulatory control by authorities. Pharmaceutical manufacture, distribution and research require licences from authorities. The pharmaceutical sector is also overseen by the competition authorities. Orion has clear policies and principles for its operations that ensure compliance with these regulations.
Intellectual property rights are inherently of crucial importance to the pharmaceutical sector. To protect Orion’s position, the patent situations of its products available for sale and in the pipeline are continuously monitored worldwide. This is done to ensure the rights to products developed by Orion can be defended and to prevent Orion itself from infringing patents or other intellectual property rights of others.
Patent protection is nevertheless of limited duration, and the expiry of patent protection on an important product can have a negative impact on the Orion Group’s operations, financial position or operating results. Nor does Orion have guarantees that patent protection will be obtained for new products in the pipeline to the desired extent or that the authorities will grant the marketing authorisations required for the products.
Product liability risks
As explained in the description of research and development risks above, the launch of a new drug in markets is preceded by extensive phased trials that delineate the drug's pharmacological properties, such as its efficacy and safety. Marketing authorisation issued by drug authorities is required to start sales and marketing of a drug.
The adverse effects of a drug are monitored as required by the authorities even after the launch of the product. Through the trials and pharmaceutical production methods described above, Orion strives to ensure in advance that its products do not have any adverse effects such as might lead to a liability to pay compensation or to withdrawal of a major product from markets.
As cover for the financial impact of product liability risk, the Orion Group’s products and operations are insured through operational and product liability insurance that also covers clinical studies, except for clinical studies carried out in the United States or Canada. Studies conducted in the United States and Canada are insured through separate insurances. The purpose of the insurance is to provide cover for any liability for damages on the part of the policyholder. As is customary in insurance terms, this protection is limited as regards potential payout, for example. Certain products and active pharmaceutical ingredients are also excluded from the cover, some of which are included in Orion’s operations. Nevertheless, they are not estimated to increase Orion’s product liability risk materially.
Risks of damage
In addition to statutory insurance, Orion has property, business interruption and liability insurance to cover such risks of damage as are deemed to be material and limitable through insurance.
Corporate safety risks
Orion’s Corporate Governance Manual includes the Group’s corporate safety guidelines. The objective of the Group’s corporate safety policy is to ensure the uninterrupted continuation of operations, the safety of people, the protection of property and the environment against damage, and the adequacy of the measures relating to data protection. The corporate safety guidelines set out the principles for corporate safety activities, and also cover guidelines for crisis management. In addition to guidelines, the data protection policy includes the objectives, key principles and responsibilities for data protection.
Information is an essential part of Orion’s immaterial capital. For collecting, handling, storage and transmitting data, Orion uses efficient, safe and reliably functioning information systems which, for their part, secure the performance and the continuity of the Group’s operations. With compliant information systems Orion also manages its pharmaceuticals business-specific obligations to secure the availability of its medicinal products, pharmacovigilance, and the reliability of drug related information.
The data security risk materialises if the data or the data system is not at the right persons’ disposal, the information has changed or ended up in the possession of outsiders. Orion manages the risks concerning information and information management systems by means of regular risk assessments, protection of operational premises and data systems, by practices which strengthen information security and by ensuring the employees’ awareness of the risks and threats concerning data security.
The Group’s Environmental, Health and Safety policy includes detailed instructions and responsibilities. Persons responsible for development and monitoring of environmental issues have been appointed for each unit of the Group. Environmental impacts are monitored through, for example, emissions measurement, waste quantity control and statistics on the consumptions of various raw materials. The implementation of EHS management is monitored through annual internal audits. The Company has the valid environmental permits required for its operations.
Product procurement and corporate acquisition risks
Orion endeavours to expand its operations by purchasing from other pharmaceutical companies or in-licensing products that are under development or already available in markets, or possibly by acquiring other pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies. In carrying out such projects, Orion strives to observe due care and diligence and to utilise both internal and external expertise in the planning and implementation phases, as well as when integrating acquired operations within the overall business.
Product procurement and possible corporate acquisitions can involve customary corporate acquisition liabilities or risks as well as other liabilities and risks connected with the nature and value of the purchased assets.
Orion’s success depends on the competence of its executive management, R&D staff and other personnel. Human resources management strives to promote well-being at work and continuous improvement of competence and the workplace. Orion’s success also depends on the Company’s ability to recruit, develop, train, motivate and retain professionally skilled personnel.